The BlueBrain project aims to reverse engineer the human brain. Currently they are working with rodent brains, mapping individual neurons and feeding the data into a working model of the brain running on 10,000 CPUs. The link is to the initial release of a 10 year long documentary about the project. It's well done.
The Beautiful Brain - Documentary
Henry Markram’s Blue Brain Project is the most promising so far in understanding how our brains really function. It's true science at work - most of the other neuroscience and AI work has been thinly disguised philosophy using computer models.
Worth the 15 minutes to watch.